The city was founded in the 220 b.C. Soon it became a strategic toman military center and due to its geografic position the municipium Bellunum became an inexpugnable stronghold, especially after the Zumelle castle was built on the Via Claudia Augusta Altinate.
After the fall of the Roman empire ad the barbarian invasions, Belluno was ruled by the Lombards and the Carolingian, then by the Ezzelini, by Venice and then by Austria.
During the First World War, with the Caporetto rout in 1917, the city and the entire area became the heart of the conflict. The troops retreated on the Piave river and decided to interrupt all connections between the two benches of the Piave river and protect the city and blew up the Ponte Vecchio (Old Bridge), whose ruins can still be seen.
At the end of the Second World War the city received the Military Gallantry Medal for the sacrifices of its inhabitants and for the ardent partisan struggle.